One of the most common questions asked by Apistogramma lovers is, “What is the ideal pH for Apistogramma aquariums?” The answer is not as simple as you might think, particularly if you’re trying to breed these colorful cichlids and raise their fry.
But fear not, for we have the inside scoop. While a slightly acidic to neutral pH of 6.0 to 7.0 is generally accepted as ideal for casual keepers, serious breeders know that the perfect pH can vary greatly depending on the species and whether it’s wild-caught or bred in captivity, ranging from 4.5 to 6.5.
So whether you’re an avid enthusiast or just dipping your toes into the world of Apistogramma, keep reading to discover the crucial role of pH levels in the health and breeding of these vibrant little fish.
Can Apistogramma Live in High pH Water?
In one word: Yes! These Apistogramma species, which originate in whitewater habitats and are accustomed to gradual seasonal changes, are able to adapt to a slightly alkaline pH (up to 7.5) and moderately hard water (dH < 10°C).
The most important thing is stability; if the pH and dH remain consistent over time, these cichlids can even breed in such water conditions. Some good candidates include:
- Umbrella Cichlid (A. borellii)
- Cockatoo dwarf cichlid (A. cacatuoides)
- Three-Striped Apisto (A. trifasciata)
- Corumba cichlid(A. commbrae)
- A. hoignei (A 116, 118)
- A. sp. ‘Rotpunkt’
- A. steindachneri
Many are known as beginner-friendly species, while some require more advanced care and experience.
It is wise to know the pH of the water in both your local pet store’s tanks and your own tank so that you can make the acclimation process smoother.
Preferred pH of Common Apistogramma Fish
You might be surprised to find how hard and alkaline the water is that most sellers use in their tanks. Even so, it’s best to stick to their recommended pH levels and avoid deviating too much.
If you have invested in a wild-caught Apistogramma that must thrive in pristine, soft water, especially the rare species native to blackwater habitats and thriving in very narrow ranges of pH, try to mimic their natural habitat as closely as possible when setting up their aquarium.
Below is a table of the preferred pH levels for some common Apistogramma species:
|Species||Preferred pH (collection site)|
|Apistogramma macmaster||5.5 to 6.0|
|Apistogramma baenschi||5.5 to 6.5|
|Apistogramma agassizii||4.3 to 6.8|
|Apistogramma cacatuoides||5.0 to 6.0|
|Apistogramma borellii||5.0 to 8.0|
|Apistogramma trifasciata||6.5 to 7.5|
|Apistogramma panduro||4.8 to 5.9|
|Apistogramma viejita||< 5.5|
|Apistogramma hongsloi||5.5 to 7.5|
|Apistogramma elizabethae||4.0 to 6.0|
Why is pH Level Important for Apistogramma?
Breeding conditions for blackwater Apistogramma species can be quite demanding. Success in breeding these fish hinges on having water that falls within their preferred pH range.
However, nitrifying bacteria, which convert ammonia to nitrite, become less active in extremely acidic environments with a pH of less than 6.0.
Although ammonia exists mainly in non-toxic ammonium (NH4+) at low pH, the problem arises when you do water changes with buffering compounds that increase water alkalinity. This can lead to high levels of toxic NH3, which can harm your Apistogramma and other tank inhabitants.
Another reason is that pH plays a role in determining the desired sex ratio among Apistogramma fry. According to Römer and Beisenherz (1966) , pH and temperature are two primary environmental factors influencing the male-to-female ratio.
Most Apistogramma species tend to produce more female individuals at higher pH levels with low temperatures. Conversely, higher temperatures combined with lower pH levels yield close to 100% male fry.
To obtain balanced sex ratios, try to maintain the pH level within an ideal range of 5.5-6.5 and the temperature at around 24-25°C during a critical period of approximately 30 to 40 days after spawning.
What Factors Affect the pH in Your Apistogramma Tank?
The term pH stands for “power of Hydrogen” and refers to how acidic or basic (respectively) your water is. The pH can, and will, change over time in your fish tank due to several factors.
KH (Carbonate Hardness)
The KH of water is related to the pH level of your aquarium. KH measures the amount of carbonate (CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3) ions, which act as a chemical buffering agent that helps neutralize acids and stabilize pH.
Since the total buffering capacity (also called the acid binding capacity) is comprised mostly of carbonate hardness in freshwater aquariums, the terms KH, acid buffering capacity, and alkalinity are often used interchangeably among fish keepers.
The effects of KH changes can be divided into two main categories:
- Low KH = pH changes easily
- High KH = pH is hard to change
As aquariums age, the carbonate ions are used up, resulting in the loss of buffering capacity and larger pH changes. Therefore, if your water pH swings easily, you should check the KH of the water.
It is also worth noting that GH (General Hardness) is primarily the measure of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) in the water, indicating the water’s hardness or softness. GH does not have a direct impact on pH, though “hard” water is typically alkaline due to some interaction between GH and KH.
When it comes to biological processes in aquariums, general hardness (GH) is far more important than carbonate hardness. Sudden changes in GH can affect the transport of ammonia and nitrite through cell membranes, egg fertility, and the proper functioning of internal organs such as kidneys, swim bladders, and intestines.
Another water parameter, the water temperature, can affect pH measurements. As the temperature rises, the pH level decreases, but not significantly enough for aquarists to detect in tanks.
The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) is influential in maintaining the desired pH range in aquariums. As a rule of thumb, the more CO2 is present in the water, the lower its pH level.
When CO2 dissolves in water, a part of it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which subsequently increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the water, making it more acidic and lowering the pH.
How Can I Lower the pH and KH Naturally in My Apistogramma Aquarium?
There are many ways to lower the pH and KH in your Apistogramma aquarium. Some are natural but less effective, while others are more potent yet dangerous.
Always try natural methods first when adjusting pH levels since the chemical additives often do more harm than good and lead to significant issues in the long run.
Reverse Osmosis (RO) Water
Using reverse osmosis (RO) water is an effective method to lower pH levels in Apistogramma tanks. During the water treatment process, a semi-permeable membrane filters out 90-99% of minerals and other contaminants that can raise pH values.
You can buy RO water from supermarkets or install an RO unit. Both options are expensive, and the unit will be more sustainable in the long term.
Introducing driftwood, leaves, and peat moss into your tank is the most natural approach to softening water and decreasing pH levels.
These materials contain tannic and gallic acids that work on the bicarbonate (HCO3) ions in the water. Furthermore, tannins have the ability to tint the water, giving your Apistogramma tank an exceptional and stunning appearance.
It’s essential to keep in mind that these botanical materials only lower pH levels when the water has lower GH. Otherwise, adding them will only tint the water and increase the TDS without causing any significant pH drop.
What Causes pH Crash in Apistogramma Tanks?
As mentioned before, pH levels tend to drop slowly over time, especially in tanks with low KH. However, sudden pH drops happen from time to time. Here are some of the possible causes:
- Overfeeding or too many fish in the tank.
- Decaying fish and plant matter.
- Poor water quality.
- Your tap water is “soft water.”
- The tank is not cycled.
Symptoms of Low pH In Apistogramma Fish Tanks
If your Apistogramma fish tank has undergone a sudden drop in pH, your fish might exhibit various symptoms:
- Rapid breathing
- Erratic swimming
- Apistos lying on the bottom of the tank
- Algae Growth
- Loss of appetite
How to Measure pH in Apistogramma Tanks?
Test Testing Strips: Test strips are simple, affordable, and provide quick results. You just dip the strip in your tank for a few seconds, take it out, and then compare the color to the chart on the box.
The downside to these strips is that they can be inaccurate and may not identify small fluctuations in pH.
- Contains one (1) API FRESHWATER MASTER TEST KIT 800-Test Freshwater Aquarium Water Master Test Kit,...
- Helps monitor water quality and prevent invisible water problems that can be harmful to fish and cause...
- Accurately monitors 5 most vital water parameters levels in freshwater aquariums: pH, high range pH,...
- Designed for use in freshwater aquariums only
- Use for weekly monitoring and when water or fish problems appear
pH Meter: Digital meters are more accurate than test strips, and they give you precise readings. The downside to digital meters is their high cost compared to the test strips.
How Often Should I Check pH?
It is recommended to check the pH levels in your Apistogramma tank at least every two weeks, though preferably on a weekly basis.
Can You Lower KH(Alkalinity) Without Affecting pH?
Lowering KH (alkalinity) without affecting pH in a freshwater aquarium can be challenging, as KH and pH are closely linked.
In a nutshell, monitoring water parameters like pH is crucial to maintaining optimal aquarium conditions. Keep everything stable and consistent, and avoid sudden changes unless you’re certain of the outcome.
If you enjoyed this article, don’t forget to check out our other posts on Apistogramma Care. We’ve got lots of information to help you take the best care of your fish!
- Environmental determination of sex in Apistogrammai (Cichlidae) and two other freshwater fishes (Teleostei)